Instructions: Recall from the chapter that there are four fallacies of ambiguity: equivocation; accent; composition; and division.
- In equivocation, a word, phrase or sentence is ambiguous in the context, and that ambiguity is used to mislead or is confusing.
- In accent, the meaning of a sentence unambiguous in the context is changed by omitting or stressing some of its words.
- In composition, we argue that what is true of the parts of a thing must necessarily be true of the whole, or that what is true of individuals in a group/species must be true of the whole group/species collectively.
- In division, we argue that what is true of a whole thing must necessarily be true of parts of the whole, or that what is true of a group/species collectively must be true of the group members individually (i.e., distributively).
Note: you should take the practice tutorial before taking this quiz, since your grade will be recorded and sent to your instructor.
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Question 1 of 8
Sign: Employees only may use this elevator.
Employee to his friend: “Well, I really wanted to use the stairs, but I guess I have to take this lousy elevator.”
Question 2 of 8
Movie critic’s review: “This movie is the greatest piece of trash to come out of Hollywood in years.”
Movie studio ad: “Critics hail our new film as the greatest to come out of Hollywood in years.”
Question 3 of 8
Ken lost at chess yesterday, so I guess his girlfriend will dump him, since she hates losers.
Question 4 of 8
A mob is no more dangerous that the individuals that make it up.
Question 5 of 8
According to the life insurance statistics, my life expectancy is twenty years. So I guess I will only live two more decades.
Question 6 of 8
My wife is being cared for at one of the finest hospitals in the country. So I’m sure all of her doctors are excellent.
Question 7 of 8
Can the universe think about itself? We know that at least part of it can: we ourselves. Is it not reasonable to conclude the whole universe can?
Question 8 of 8
Luisa: “You better watch out! That ladder isn’t as safe as it looks!”
Maria: “I’m glad to hear you say that the ladder is safe.”